Practical Winery
65 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael, CA 94903
phone: 415-453-9700 ext 102
email: Office@practicalwinery.com
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March/April 2008
GRAPEGROWING
Today, more than 80% of it comes from the burning of fossil fuels like coal, gasoline, and natural gas.
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These fuels contain carbon from decayed plants that have been buried in the earth for millions of years, and are now being burned so rapidly that it has overwhelmed the processes that naturally remove atmospheric CO
2
.
The geographical origin of emissions is also changing. About 80% of CO
2
from burning fossil fuels, to date, has come from industrialized countries (with only 20% of the world's population), while the remaining 80% of the population have contributed only 20% of the emissions.
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Since 2000, however, about 70% of the increase in emissions has come from developing countries. (Figure I).
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Carbon dioxide is not the only greenhouse gas related to human activity. Methane (CH
4
, released from industry and agriculture), nitrous oxide (N
2
O, released mainly from agriculture), low-atmosphere ozone (O
3
, a by-product of smog), and several industrial chemicals related to air conditioning and refrigeration together account for about 80% as much greenhouse warming as CO
2
.
Figure III. Observed surface temperatures over continents and the globe from 1906-2005 (black line), compared with results simulated by climate models using only natural inputs of solar activity and volcanoes (blue band; standard deviation around annual average for five climate models, 19 simulations) and models using both natural and human inputs (pink band; standard deviation around annual average for 14 climate models, 58 simulations).
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